YENROSE REPLIES: Matthew White Jun 24, 2024, 6:45 AM Unread Factorial designs are widely used in research for various reasons.

YENROSE REPLIES:

Matthew White

Jun 24, 2024, 6:45 AM

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Factorial designs are widely used in research for various reasons. Two common reasons for using factorial designs are to examine interaction effects and to increase the efficiency of the study. Interaction effects occur when the effect of one independent variable on the dependent variable changes depending on the level of another independent variable. By using a factorial design, researchers can investigate how different factors interact, providing a more comprehensive understanding of the relationships between variables. Additionally, factorial designs allow researchers to study the effects of multiple independent variables simultaneously, thus maximizing the amount of information obtained from a single study, making the research process more efficient.

· Bartholow and Heinz’s word association study on alcohol and thoughts of aggression was a factorial design because it simultaneously manipulated two independent variables: alcohol consumption (alcohol vs. no alcohol) and aggressive prime (aggressive vs. non-aggressive words). By using a factorial design, the researchers were able to assess the main effects of alcohol and aggressive prime on aggressive thoughts as well as any potential interaction between the two variables. This approach provided a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive thoughts, demonstrating the utility of factorial designs in psychological research.

 

Brittany Lillie

Jun 24, 2024, 9:01 AM

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Hello class,

In order to investigate the impact of several variables on a specific result, researchers employ factorial designs. They are frequently used to look into how various variables interact with one another and identify which variables have the biggest impacts on the desired result. By looking at several factors at once, they also improve study efficiency. A factorial design was employed in Bartholow and Heinz’s word association study on alcohol and aggressive thoughts to investigate the relationship between alcohol intake and exposure to aggressive words on participants’ aggressive thoughts. The research illustrated the advantages of employing a factorial design in studies by providing a deeper comprehension of the intricate connection between alcohol intake and aggressive thoughts. This method yielded insights that a more straightforward experimental design might not have been able to. All things considered, factorial designs are an effective method for examining how many factors affect a result. They offer a more sophisticated comprehension of intricate relationships and interactions, resulting in more reliable and perceptive conclusions.

 

Thank you,

Brittany Lillie

 

Follow up question:

Do you believe that factorial designs are always required in research, or are there some circumstances in which more straightforward experimental designs might be more suitable?

Angelica Nodal

Jun 24, 2024, 9:15 AM(edited)

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Hello, Class and Professor,

 

Factorial designs are widely used in research to investigate the impact of multiple independent variables on a dependent variable. There are two main reasons for using a factorial design: to explore interactions between independent variables and to analyze the primary effects of each independent variable.

In a study on alcohol and thoughts of aggression, Bartholow and Heinz utilized a factorial design by manipulating two independent variables: alcohol consumption (present or absent) and aggression-related words (present or absent). This approach allowed them to examine the potential interaction between alcohol and aggressive cues on participants’ thoughts and behaviors. By doing so, they were able to not only assess the individual effects of alcohol and aggression-related words but also explore how these factors might interact to influence cognitive processes related to aggression. In summary, their study serves as an example of using a factorial design to investigate how multiple variables collectively influence a specific outcome.

Matthew White

Jun 24, 2024, 6:46 AM

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When it comes to conducting research, achieving both internal validity and external validity is often challenging. Experimenters usually prioritize internal validity over external validity when it is difficult to achieve both due to several reasons.

 

Internal validity refers to the extent to which a causal relationship between variables is established. It is crucial for ensuring that the results of an experiment are accurate and reliable. On the other hand, external validity refers to the generalizability of the findings to real-world situations and settings.

 

In situations where it is difficult to achieve both internal and external validity, experimenters prioritize internal validity because establishing a strong cause-and-effect relationship is fundamental to scientific inquiry. Without strong internal validity, the results of an experiment may be questionable, and any inferences drawn from the study would be unreliable.

 

While external validity is important for the broader applicability of the findings, without strong internal validity, there is little value in attempting to generalize the results to other contexts. Therefore, prioritizing internal validity over external validity in such situations ensures that the research findings are sound and credible, laying a strong foundation for further exploration and application.

 

Brittany Lillie

Jun 24, 2024, 9:05 AM

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Hello class, 

 

A key component of experimental research is internal validity, which guarantees that the variables being tested produce accurate results. If the study’s internal validity is weak, its conclusions could be faulty and untrustworthy. Conversely, external validity pertains to the extent to which results can be applied to actual environments or demographics. Although practical application requires external validity, internal validity is frequently compromised in the process. When both are challenging to attain, internal validity must take precedence over external validity because the study’s findings are useless without it. Conclusions might not be valid if bias and confounding variables are not controlled for. An accurate depiction of the relationship between variables and methodological soundness are ensured by concentrating on internal validity.

 

Thank you, 

Brittany Lillie 

 

 

Follow up question: 

How can researchers balance internal and external validity in their research without sacrificing the study’s integrity?

Angelica Nodal

Jun 24, 2024, 9:19 AM

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Hi, Class and Professor,

 

When researchers prioritize internal validity over external validity, they ensure that the results of their experiment accurately reflect the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable without being influenced by other factors. This is crucial for drawing accurate conclusions about cause and effect within the specific experimental conditions. On the other hand, external validity refers to how applicable the results are to real-world settings or different populations. While external validity is essential for applying research findings to broader contexts, prioritizing internal validity helps to establish a strong foundation for understanding the specific relationships being studied. In cases where achieving internal and external validity is challenging, prioritizing internal validity allows researchers to understand the causal relationship being investigated clearly. Once this understanding is established, efforts can be made to enhance external validity through additional research or consider how the findings might apply in various real-world scenarios.

ALBERTOS REPLIES:

Jean Scarrott

Jun 24, 2024, 3:37 PM

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A budget is a monthly or annual plan of how to spend money taking into account your expected income and expenses. A static budget is one that does not change with time or circumstance. A flexible budget is a budget that does change depending on specific criteria. As explained by Warren et al. (2023), many businesses would benefit from a flexible budget to take into account the increased expenses when additional units are produced. An example would be a cupcake business, there are fixed costs like the monthly rent and the salary of the owner, but it would be wise to use a flexible budget since it takes much more time, labor, and supplies to make 5000 cupcakes than it does to make 1000 cupcakes. If the business used a static budget, it would likely run over budget frequently if the company was selling a lot of cupcakes.

Reference

Warren, C., Jones, J., & Tayler, W. (2023). 
Financial & Managerial Accounting. 16th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage. ISBN-13: 9780357714041

Lisa Woodard

Jun 24, 2024, 4:54 PM

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A budget is to me is a financial plan made to organize and keep account of monies made and monies used for expenses such as mortgage, utilities, food, car insurance, health insurance, etc. to run a successful household and business. The difference between static and flexible budgets is that the flexible budgets which are budgets prepared for different volumes of activity. Cost behavior is much of the driving force behind flexible budgets. Flexible budgets are often used at the end of the period as the best basis for performance evaluation. A static budget shows the expected results of a responsibility center for only one activity level. Once, the budget has been determined, it is not changed, even if the activity changes. I think it would be very important to use a flexible budget towards a business rather than a static budget, because flexible budgets prepare for different volumes of different activities for the business. Versus, the static budget which shows the results of a responsibility only for one activity.

Daisy Arias

Jun 25, 2024, 6:25 PM

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Hello,

 

Budget plays a big roll in company doesn’t mater what type of company you are running but there will always be a budget that we can spend for supplies expenses, material. labor, payroll and much more. The less you spend from the budget the more our company will be profiting.  The difference between Static and flexible budget is that Static budget it is a report that once it is set, there is no way back to adjust the report. Versus a flexible budget is an expected results that the company knows they have to spend on office or store expenses, company will know if it is profit or a loss. It is important to have a flexible budget because we can use a majority of the budget is either they use it all or use partial of it.

 

 

Warren, C., Jones, J., and Tayler, W. 2023. 
Financial & Managerial Accounting. 16th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage. ISBN-13: 9780357714041

 

 

~Daisy

Daisy Arias

Jun 25, 2024, 6:37 PM

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Hello,

 

Budgeting can have their ups and downs, where we have pitfalls but we can avoided that by having a plan ahead of time. That  is by having realistic goals where you can have expenses were you need them and not just because you need extra or because your in a competition with another firm or brand. We have guideline with budgeting and regulations we need to fall, and see our budget report of where we can spend or were we can’t. We need to created in inventory for our expenses when it comes to supplies, payroll, labor and etc.

 

 

 

 

 

Warren, C., Jones, J., and Tayler, W. 2023. 
Financial & Managerial Accounting. 16th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage. ISBN-13: 9780357714041

 

Kimberly Greene

Jun 26, 2024, 11:16 AM

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Hello Class,

 

Budgets are so important.  I feel they are able to give you a future look at what your costs will be and where your funds will be allocated for the year.  I think companies definitely need a budget, I feel this helps companies know how to plan for the future and also look at any costs that can be supplemented after a few months or quarters.  This allows them to see if there also any adjustments that can be made as well.  They can see where their break even will be in advance to help goal set for that or their profits.  A pitfall in budgeting to me is if the budget is missing items or costs. It can hurt if you are not budgeting too low for certain costs and have not secured a price or done the market research to have a good idea of the cost.  More importantly to make sure you have a budget that will have the correct costs and things that will have funds allocated for them.  If you budget too low then if the cost is much higher then it will start off way too far off track and will take some time to get back caught up or will be rushed to work extra to bring in more revenue to cover the extra that was not planned for.

 

Kim

 

Warren, C., Jones, J., and Tayler, W. 2023. 
Financial & Managerial Accounting. 16th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage. ISBN-13: 9780357714041

Lisa Woodard

Jun 26, 2024, 1:28 PM

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Some pitfalls of budgeting can be that you have bills and their over exceeding the income that your bringing in. To avoid this pitfall you have to pay the necessities which is your mortgage, utilities, and food and not put yourself in credit card debt.  

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