OVERVIEW Curriculum development aims to change teaching and learning by

 

OVERVIEW

Curriculum development aims to change teaching and learning by enabling learners to attain their goals and society’s goal. Curriculum implementation is an essential part of curriculum development; it is the phase of anticipated changes. Therefore, we will explore curriculum implementation and evaluation.

You must know what is involved in implementing a curriculum and how it is evaluated. Several text readings have been shared for you to read. The notes below give you a gist of curriculum implementation and evaluation. However, I highly recommend you take the time to read the text readings to help you develop a better understanding of curriculum implementation and evaluation.

NOTES

Curriculum Implementation 

Curriculum implementation is putting into practice the approved curriculum of study, subjects, and syllabuses for learners. The act of implementation is the learner learning the planned learning experiences, knowledge, skills, and ideas to enable the learner to function effectively in society.

  • Curriculum implementation is considered the essential aspect of curriculum development.
  • A curriculum must be implemented to impact student performance and attain its goals. If a curriculum is implemented, it must be evaluated.
  • The most crucial variable in implementing a curriculum is the learner. The learner is the nucleus of the curriculum implementation process.
  • The agent of curriculum implementation is the teacher. They select instructional strategies, instructional materials, instructional methods, schemes of lessons to help students learn the content of the curriculum.
  • Curriculum changes occur in two ways: slow change and rapid change.
  • When working to implement a curriculum successfully, the following need to be considered
    • Curriculum changes must be technically sound; they should reflect research about what works and what does not work instead of what is popular.
    • Curriculum changes must be embedded in the existing structure of responsibilities of the students and teachers.
    • Curriculum changes must be manageable and feasible.
    • Curriculum changes must be organic rather than bureaucratic.
    • Curriculum changes must avoid the “do something, do anything approach.” The curriculum’s content and activities must be sound and rational.
  • It is common knowledge that there will be resistance to change. Some reasons for opposition are psycho-social bias of people, indifference among administration, rapidity of change, lack of knowledge, and lack of incentives.
  • To assist with implementation, one should consider involving people in planning the implementation. Also, one should consider preparing for problems by having solutions readily available. When implementing a curriculum, the designer must anticipate changes in the curriculum as one receives feedback—lastly, proper timing.
  • To successfully implement a curriculum, the designer or team must focus on these factors: people, program, processes, and communication. Communication plays a vital role in implementing a new curriculum.

Curriculum Evaluation

Curriculum evaluation is the collection of information to make informed decisions. It is an essential aspect of the education system. It aims to examine the impact of the curriculum being implemented in the classroom so that modifications or revisions can be made to improve the learning processes in the school.

  • Curriculum evaluation has three primary meanings: describing and judging an educational program or subject, comparing students’ performance with behaviorally stated objectives, and defining, collecting, and using information for instructional decision-making purposes.
  • There are five curriculum evaluation approaches: bureaucratic, autocratic, democratic, norm-referenced, and criterion-referenced evaluation.
  • There are two functions of curriculum evaluation: inform decision-making and self-evaluation.
  • There are three focuses the evaluation of a curriculum or aspects of the curriculum revolves around: curriculum standards, curriculum content and methodology, and curriculum outcomes. 
  • The forms of evaluation are summative and formative. Summative evaluation involves making judgments about the efficacy of a program at its conclusion. Formative evaluation is conducted during the development or improvement of a program. 
  • Evaluation methods and tools can evaluate programs or aspects of the program, such as observations, interviews, tests, and questionnaires. 
  • The evaluator(s) of the curriculum can be internal or external individuals. Internal evaluators can be administrators, teaches, other staff members, students, and parents. External evaluators can be state agencies, consultants, and curriculum evaluators.
  • An evaluator uses an evaluation model created by curriculum experts throughout history and conducted long studies to support its effectiveness. Depending on the approach taken by the evaluator, the models will differ. This is because of the evaluators’ diverse philosophical ideologies, cognitive styles, methodological preferences, values, and practical perspectives.
  • Curriculum evaluators use several curriculum evaluation models. They are quasi-evaluation approach, Improvement- and accountability-oriented evaluation approaches, social agenda, and advocacy evaluation approaches, Eclectic evaluation approaches, Tyler’s Model, CIPP Model, Context Evaluation, Input Evaluation, Process Evaluation, Product Evaluation, Stake’s Congruence – contingency Model, and Scriven’s Model (description of models in Chapter 9 Curriculum Evaluation).

Topics

  • Chapter 8: Curriculum Implementation
  • Chapter 9: Curriculum Evaluation